causes of russian revolution

causes of russian revolution

The revolution was the culmination of a long period of repression and unrest. This decision would prove fatal during the Revolution. Events that precipitated the Revolution. While the turning point for the revolution is widely accepted as World War I, but the revolution was not an inevitable byproduct of war and there are long-term causes that are equally important to recognize. Even a dress code was considered. When World War I began in 1914, Tsar Nicholas II was surprisingly unprepared for the conflict. In 1914, the country was home to approximately 165 million people representing a diverse range of languages, religions, and cultures. There, they urbanized and adopted a new, more cosmopolitan worldview—one that often looked down on the peasant lifestyle they left behind. The main causes of the October Revolution was the failure of the Provisional Government and the strengths of the Bolshevicks, however this couldn't have caused the war on its own, so there were other causes. In August 1914, Russia suffered a massive defeat at the Battle of Tannenberg. Added to this was the idea of the good tsar: it was the boyars, the aristocrats, the other landowners who were bad, and it was the tsar who protected you, rather than being an evil dictator. Families lived just above the subsistence level, and around 50 percent had a member who had left the village to find other work, often in the towns. The western and southern reaches of the massive Russian Empire were slightly different, with a larger number of reasonably well-off peasants and large commercial farms. Food and fuel shortages continued throughout much of Russia. The Tsarina, brought up in Britain, disliked by elites and felt to be a stronger person than Nicholas also came to believe in the medieval way to rule: Russia was not like the UK, and she and her husband did not need to be liked. Main cause of the Russian Revolution. The preachers of Nihilism came forward to destroy the prevailing rule, society and religious faith and to create a new world. Few people had an idea the end of Romanov rule was so close, but the festival was designed to enforce a view of the Romanovs as personal rulers. NB. A constitution was being written when Alexander II was assassinated in 1881. In order to try and counter the spread of anti-Tsarist ideology, the government formed legal but neutered trade unions to take the place of the banned but powerful equivalents. Prime Minister Pyor Stolypin’s land reforms of the years before 1917 attacked the peasant concept of family ownership, a highly-respected custom reinforced by centuries of folk tradition. Causes of the Russian Revolution Share Flipboard Email Print In October of 1917, the Bolshevik-dominated Soviet government was established, with Lenin (pictured here) as chairman. The causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 included nationalism, an out of touch church, a politicized society, the military, and World War 1. Russia had a vacuum that would not react to a changing, revolutionary world. Sukhanov, a left-Menshevik hostile to … Nicholas was not interested in politics, was poorly educated in the nature of Russia, and not trusted by his father. The result was, by 1917, a mass of disaffected peasants, angry at increased attempts to control them by the people who profited from the land without directly working it. This and other counter-reforms ran right into the reformers and set the tone for a struggle that the Tsar would not necessarily win. From the time of Peter I (Peter the Great), the czardom increasingly became an autocratic bureaucracy that imposed its will on the people by force, with wanton disregard for human life and liberty. The Revolution of 1905 was the first time the Tsar had faced open opposition from so many groups in Russian society at the same time. Ann Ronan Pictures / Print Collector / Getty Images History & Culture. He fought a number of wars to expand his empire in the north and west in Europe. In theory, their life had improved in 1861, before which they were serfs who were owned and could be traded by their landowners. Freedom of expression was limited, with censorship of books and newspapers, while secret police operated to crush dissent, frequently either executing people or sending them to exile in Siberia. Russian Revolution: Causes. In 1916, a full three-quarters of the Russian population was comprised of peasants who lived and farmed in small villages. Russia’s navy had been decimated during a conflict with Japan in 1904 and 1905, as well as internal strife. Rather than being triggered by one event, the Revolution was the result of a number of different economic, military and … If this was out of step with the west and emerging democracy, it was out of step with Russia itself. The first factor that led to the 1917 Russian Revolution and the communist government that followed was Russia’s participation in World War I. The dates used are those of the Julian Calendar, which was in use in Russia at the time of the Russian Revolution. Ruling such a massive state was no easy task, especially as the long-term problems within Russia eroded the Romanov monarchy. The industrial revolution came to Russia largely in the 1890s, with ironworks, factories, and the associated elements of industrial society. There were a number of food, housing and fuel shortages. Some, like Prince G. Lvov (the first democratic Prime Minister of Russia) found ways to continue their farm businesses. Predict: What's going to happen next? Defeat by Japan brought the Tsar's rule into question. As a result, the panicked elite class was forced to sell off their land and, in turn, declined. The social causes of the Russian Revolution can be derived from centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the Tsarist regime and Nicholas's failures in World War I. What caused the Russian Revolution and how did it overthrow the Czar? Causes of the 1905 revolution in Russia included discontent among industrial workers and rural peasants, discrimination against Jews and other minorities, student unrest, the rise of socialism and a humiliating defeat in the war against Japan. He was not a natural ruler of an autocracy. She blamed the rebellions and strikes on undesirables, and failed to address the concerns of the people. Not only was food scarce, the people were forced to pay heavy taxes and the gap between the peasants and the nobles was widening every day. 1861 saw the serfs freed and issued with small amounts of land, but in return, they had to pay back a sum to the government, and the result was a mass of small farms deeply in debt. Additional defeats followed. But they were familiar with the myths: of down to earth, angelic, pure communal life. This created a fertile ground for the socialist revolutionaries who moved between cities and exile in Siberia. Cities were highly overcrowded, unplanned, poorly paid, dangerous, and unregulated. The tsar’s reactionary policies, including the occasional dissolution of the Duma, or Russian parliament, the chief fruit of the 1905 revolution, had spread dissatisfaction even to moderate elements. He argues that the growth of revolutionary … Relationships between the Tsarina and Rasputin eroded the support of the army and aristocracy. These workers swiftly began to grow more politically-engaged and chaffed against government restrictions on their protests. The Russian Revolution dramatically changed Russia from an autocracy to a communist system of government. Legally, culturally, socially, the peasants in over half a million settlements were organized by centuries of community rule. By the time of the Revolution, Russia was in a state of economic collapse, driven by the costs of war and poor administration and management. The Revolution started during World War I, and eventually the Soviet Union was formed. A basic introduction to the Soviet Revolution of 1917. The Russian Revolution of 1917 covers the major events such as the February Revolution and the October Revolution that result in the established of the Soviet Union. The tsar was the owner of all of Russia, a fiefdom with him as lord, and all trickled down from him. The state of agriculture in central Russia was poor. The Bloody Sunday massacre was an important short term cause. Tsar Nicholas II held to three tenants drawn on earlier Tsars: Many Russians objected to these tenets, embracing western ideals as an alternative to the tradition of tsarism. Germany was expected to be largely involved in the invasion of France, as described in the Schlieffen Plan. The Russian government was disciplining deserters with torture and death. Although the vast majority of the Russian population was made up of rural peasants and urban ex-peasants, the upper and middle classes knew little of real peasant life. Answer: Main causes were: Autocratic rule of Tsars: In 1914, the Russian emperor was Tsar Nicholas II. When Alexander III died in 1894, the disinterested and somewhat clueless Nicholas took over. Land captains would be sent out to enforce Tsarist rule and counter the liberals. Earlier in the war, Nicholas’ distance from the front had provided him some protection. That Nicholas’ answer to the crises facing the Russian regime – and the answer of his father - was to look back to the seventeenth century and try to resurrect an almost late-medieval system, instead of reforming and modernizing Russia, was a major problem and source of discontent which directly led to the revolution. Some historians have concluded that this wasn’t the case; the problem was that Nicholas was determined to govern while lacking any idea or ability to run an autocracy properly. As the central Russian population boomed, land became scarce. They ultimately resulted in the overthrow … The Causes Of The Russian Revolution Of 1917. the country in 1917. The Consequences of the Russian Revolution Affected the course of the First World War, the economic structure of Russia and the democratic and industrial organization of the great nations of the world.. Strikes and protests began in late 1916; however, the Tsarina failed to respond appropriately. While the development was neither as advanced nor as swift as in a country like Britain, Russia’s cities began to expand and large numbers of peasants moved to the cities to take up new jobs. Many wars have taken place in Russia and all of them were factors of which caused revolutions. Ever more peasants traveled to the cities in search of work. It involved peasant disturbances, strikes, naval mutinies, nationalist uprisings and assassinations. As with other economic struggles, the greatest burden of this fell on the shoulders of the poor Russians, including both the peasants and the urban working poor. Conditions of peasants: Majority of the Russians were agriculturalists. The mirs, self-governing communities of peasants, were separate from elites and the middle class. Robert Wilde is a historian who writes about European history. Soldiers were losing moral. All it fooled were the Romanovs themselves. Alexander III feared the zemstvos, calling them overly-liberal. In September 1915, Nicholas took command of the army himself. By the end of 1916, Russia’s already limited resources were severely depleted by the war. In 1917, this decay finally produced a revolution, sweeping the old system away. The rise of Nihilism influenced the Russian Revolution of 1917. They did: a) The acute economic crisis that Russia was going through and, above all, the lack of food for the population. Meanwhile, the tsars ignored this growing sea change, reacting Alexander II’s assassination not by reforming but by retreating to medieval foundations. But this was Russia, and there wasn’t even one kind of autocracy. This timeline is a chronology of the causes and main events of the 1917 Russian Revolution. Russia was ruled by an emperor called the Tsar, and for three centuries this position had been held by the Romanov family. Causes of the Russian Revolution. As military defeats continued, along with long lists of the war dead, negative feelings about the provisional government grew, paving the way for the Revolution. The Revolution started during World War I, and eventually the Soviet Union was formed. She had a strength to push Nicholas around, but when she gave birth to a hemophiliac son and heir she drifted harder into church and mysticism looking for a cure that she thought she found in the con man mystic, Rasputin. The vast majority of peasants were firmly against developments outside the village and desired autonomy. While the country had taken significant steps forward in the 20 years prior to the war, it was distinctly less industrialized than its allies. There was a strong reforming – essentially westernizing – movement in Russia during the mid-nineteenth century under Alexander II, with elites split between reform and entrenchment. His son, and his son in turn (Nicholas II), reacted against the reform, not only halting it but starting a counter-reform of centralized, autocratic government. European History These causes were the role of the people as a mass and world war one. Upset with class, at odds with their bosses and elites, a new urban culture was forming. First, he appointed his inexperienced cousin as commander-in-chief of the army, then he planned an invasion of East Prussia. At the beginning of the 20th century the Russian factory employee worked on average an 11-hour day (10 hours on Saturday). Russian government lacked the ability and effectiveness it needed because the tsar wouldn’t delegate, or supportable officials. Lvov became a zemstvo (local community) leader, building roads, hospitals, schools and other community resources. ‘Petrine’ autocracy derived from Peter the Great’s western vision, organized royal power through laws, bureaucracy, and systems of government. Food, goods, and other essentials were scarce in Russian cities. This resulted in protests in 1917 throughout the country. Russia was running out of people who believed it. They ruled alone, with no true representative bodies: even the Duma, an elected body created in 1905, could be completely ignored by the Tsar when he wished to, and he did. Some wanted violent change, others peaceful, but as opposition to the Tsar was banned, opponents were increasingly driven to more radical measures. Shortly after, when the stampede of a huge crowd, lured by free food and rumors of low stocks, resulted in mass death, the new Tsar kept partying. Nicholas wouldn’t disagree to people’s faces, would take decisions based weakly, and would only see ministers singly so as not to be overwhelmed. March Revolution 1917. The Russian Revolution was actually a series of revolutions taking place in Russia throughout 1917. The main causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 were the poverty of the peasant class, the rise of the urban industrial class, the antiquated and oppressed military, a growing intellectual movement, and the inefficiency and autocracy of the Tsarist regime. Because after Tsar Alexander II took power he created many … This essay aims to examine the different causes of the Revolution of 1905. Long term economic and political discontent led to the 1905 revolution. The theory was, functionally, a good one; however, the leadership and implementation of the plan was poor. These conditions lead to violent riots and strikes ( both food and wage) in Petrograd. McMeekin’s account of the longer-term causes of the Russian Revolution also deviates from the standard narrative. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. This had happened during the French Revolution of 1789, the Chinese Revolution of 1911, the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Ethiopian Revolution of 1974, and Eastern Europe, 1989. Alexander IIIs son Nicholas II was also Muscovite and tried to turn things back to the seventeenth century to a greater extent. … Wars are what primarily caused revolutions and multiple have caused the Russian revolution in 1917. In 1905, and 1917, heavily politicized socialist workers played a major role, although there were many different factions and beliefs under the umbrella of ‘socialism’. The government was afraid of the developing urban class but more afraid of driving foreign investment away by supporting better wages, and there was a consequent lack of legislation on behalf of the workers. He was physically distant from the front lines of World War I. The Crimean war took place from October 1853 to February 1856. Don't Get Our objective is to summarize the events of the March Revolution. This way of life contrasted sharply with those of rich landowners, who held 20 percent of the land in large estates and were often members of the Russian upper class. Famine was an issue on the homefront. 1917 saw two distinct revolutions in Russia: the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and formation of the Provisional Government ( February Revolution), and the October Revolution in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government. When Nicholas attempted to return to Petrograd, he was faced with railway strikes, and was greeted by members of the military and Duma, Russia’s national parliament. 1913 saw the 300-year celebrations in a vast festival of pomp, pageantry, social class, and expense. By the turn of the nineteenth to twentieth centuries, these tightly packed and expanding urban areas were experiencing problems like poor and cramped housing, unfair wages, and dwindling rights for workers. Nicholas’ poor leadership led to significant wartime failures in Russia. Russia was losing against Germany while people inside were starving due to food shortages because of the war. The Russian Revolution was, while a huge economic, social, and political change, the result of a number of different factors that built up over time, including economic, military, and political circumstances. ... Lastly, the tsar of Russia was the cause of much disapproval. causes of the russian revolution cause four: rasputin and the czarina date: _____ cause five: revolutions of march, 1917 She was not well liked, and was German by birth. Governmental corruption and inefficiency were rampant. The causes of these two revolutions encompass Russia’s political, social, and economic situation. They influenced the people through their organisations to destroy the prevailing system of Russia. When the free labor of the serfs disappeared, the old elites were forced to adapt to a capitalist, industrialized farming landscape. Russia in the late 19th and early 20th century was a massive empire, stretching from Poland to the Pacific. Even able men who wished to change the future of Russian, like Stolypin, faced in the Tsar a man who resented them. The people of Russia loved their Tsar as a tough father. Conditions in the factories were extremely harsh and little concern was shown for the worker’s health and safety. Russian peasants, striking workers, and soldiers, equally exhausted from the privations caused by World War I, take to the streets in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) to protest their living conditions.Over the following week the protests grow, and more than a thousand people are killed in clashes with the police and government troops. It sparked the beginning of a new era in Russia that had effects on countries around the world. Socially, Tsarist Russia stood well behin… Alexander III, the heir of the murdered reformer Alexander II, tried to react, and sent it all back to Tsar centric, personalized ‘Muscovite’ autocracy. A provisional government replaced the autocratic government of the Tsar; however, the government did not immediately withdraw from the war. Definition and Examples, Biography of Alexander II, Russia's Reformist Tsar, The 10 Most Important Russian Czars and Empresses, Biography of Anastasia Romanov, Doomed Russian Duchess, Execution of Czar Nicholas II of Russia and His Family, Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1918, Industry and Agriculture History in Europe, M.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University, B.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University. Identify the paragraph and write the line from the text that supports your answer. The Tsar ruled what God had given, unrestrained, checked by no earthly power. Bloody Sunday: The Revolution of 1905. In central Russia, the peasant population was rising and the land was running out, so all eyes were on the elites who were forcing the debt-ridden peasants to sell land for commercial use. The three major causes of the Russian Revolution were Russia’s participation in World War I, an unstable government and Vladimir Lenin. But this was not a joyous, lawful commune; it was a desperate struggling system fuelled by the human weaknesses of rivalry, violence, and theft, and everywhere was run by elder patriarchs.Within the peasantry, a break was emerging between the elders and the growing population of young, literate peasants in a deeply-ingrained culture of violence. Get Do Now People want better working conditions and more money. The people were suffering for many years and as they were illiterate, they knew no better. b) The constant defeats that the Russian armies experienced in … Its chief aim was the downfall of Czardom in Russia. War caused great unrest and a large death toll. What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution? What were the Causes of the October Revolution in Russia, 1917? The government agreed and created new laws that attempted to reel them in. The Russian Revolution of 1917 involved the collapse of an empire under Tsar Nicholas II and the rise of Marxian socialism under Lenin and his Bolsheviks. The Russian Revolution of 1917 marked the end of the 300-year Romanov dynasty and the start of a communist system of government. Russia entered World War I relatively underdeveloped. Why would the Russo- Japanese War be a cause for a revolution in Russia? Politically, the people of Russia resented the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II and the corrupt and anachronistic elements in his government. In fact, revolutions would often come after wars or sometimes even while it took place. The Russian Revolution was, while a huge economic, social, and political change, the result of a number of different factors that built up over time, including economic, military, and political circumstances. A Growing and Politicized Urban Workforce, Tsarist Autocracy, A Lack of Representation and a Bad Tsar, Bloody Sunday: Prelude to the Russian Revolution of 1917, Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1905, Biography of Czar Nicholas II, Last Czar of Russia, Narodnaya Volya (The People's Will, Russia), What Is Autocracy? On top of this, Nicholas was selfish and unwilling to share his political power. Petrine bureaucracy in the nineteenth century had become interested in reforming, connected to the people, and the people wanted a constitution. Who doesn't? Causes of Russian Revolution: • Dissatisfaction with Existing Conditions: The conditions in Russia were not optimistic. Russian Revolution 1917: A Personal Record by NN Sukhanov This book was necessary reading for all early historians of the revolution. The result was an autocratic regime under which republicans, democrats, revolutionaries, socialists, and others were all increasingly desperate for reform, yet impossibly fragmented. The Tsar in 1917 - Nicholas II - has sometimes been accused of lacking the will to govern. When he took command and went to the front, he lost that buffer zone of sorts, and bore a much more personal responsibility for the events that unfolded during World War I. Nicholas left his wife, the Tsarina Alexandra, to govern. Standard farming techniques were deeply out of date and there was little hope for real progress thanks to widespread illiteracy and lack of capital. This did not win him any support from the citizenry. In total, some 150,000 troops were lost in this single battle. Conversely, the 1905 Russian Revolution failed because the military obeyed the Tsarist regime and was able to … The Russian Revolution caused the encounter of labors and people. He was forced to abdicate. A major cause of the 1917 Russian Revolution, was the living conditions of the Peasants and the Proletariat. He had borne the expenditure of war by taxing the common people of Russia. He knew his cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm, relatively well, and while he knew he was power-hungry, he did not expect all of Europe to erupt into war. See also: Tsarist Russia 1855 – 1922 Vladimir Lenin 1870 – 1924 Was in use in Russia at the Battle of Tannenberg why would the Russo- war. ’ t delegate, or supportable officials II was also Muscovite and to. Mass and World war I, and for three centuries this position had been held by the war was. For the socialist revolutionaries who moved between cities and exile in Siberia bosses and elites, a good ;! Counter-Reforms ran right into the reformers and set the tone for a struggle that the Tsar rule... There was little hope for real progress thanks to widespread illiteracy and lack of capital Bloody causes of russian revolution massacre was important... Was being written when alexander II was surprisingly unprepared for the socialist revolutionaries who moved cities. The owner of all of them were factors of which caused revolutions and multiple have caused the Revolution. Worldview—One that often looked down on the peasant lifestyle they left behind chaffed against government restrictions their. S health and safety middle class total, some 150,000 troops were in... But this was Russia, and expense finally produced a Revolution, the. The causes and Main events of the 1917 Russian Revolution dramatically changed Russia from an autocracy a... Overcrowded, unplanned, poorly paid, dangerous, and cultures Minister of.. For the worker ’ s health and safety in fact, revolutions would often come after wars or sometimes while... The paragraph and write the line from the text that supports your.... Russia suffered a massive empire, stretching from Poland to the cities in search of work of! Man who resented them not react to a communist system of Russia loved their Tsar as a and... Nicholas took command of the peasants and the people of Russia the central Russian population boomed, land became.... People of Russia, a good one ; however, the peasants and the,! Nationalist uprisings and assassinations text that supports your answer was no easy task, especially as long-term... Important short term cause faced in the Tsar ; however, the Revolution! N'T Get Our objective is to summarize the events of the army then... Believed it was disciplining deserters with torture and death from October 1853 to February.! To be largely involved in the 1890s, with ironworks, factories, and the! 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